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Funding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Declaration of interests: HE, NI, and HM are affiliated with the Department of Healthcare Quality Assessment at the University of Tokyo. The department is a social collaboration department supported by National Clinical Database, Johnson & Johnson K.K., Nipro Corporation, and Intuitive Surgical Sàrl.
Conflict of interest: HE, NI, and HM are affiliated with the Department of Healthcare Quality Assessment at the University of Tokyo. The department is a social collaboration department supported by grants from the National Clinical Database, Johnson & Johnson K.K., Nipro Corporation, and Intuitive Surgical Sàrl. The other authors do not have any competing interests.
Author Contributions: Hideki Endo: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Visualization, and Writing - original draft. Shigehiko Uchino: Conceptualization, Methodology, and Writing - review & editing. Satoru Hashimoto: Conceptualization, Methodology, and Writing - review & editing. Nao Ichihara: Methodology and Writing - review & editing. Hiroaki Miyata: Supervision and Writing - review & editing.