Challenges with need to improve the reference standard in diagnosis: paper 3. Response to Mustafa and Schunemann

  • Martin H. Reed
    Corresponding author. Department of Radiology, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 197 Harvard Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3M 0J9. Tel.: +1 204 782 9764; fax: +1 204 782 1402.
    Department of Radiology, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
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Published:November 28, 2022DOI:
      A recognition of two problems with defining reference standards for diagnostic tests.
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        • Mustafa R.A.
        • Schunemann H.
        Assessing the certainty of evidence of test accuracy studies when there are challenges with establishing a reference standard.
        J Clin Epidemiol. 2022;
      1. Reed M. H. Challenges with the Need to Improve the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Imaging: Paper 1: Two challenges: Absence of a clear cut, easily replicable test for the Reference Standard; Unethical/infeasible inclusion of an invasive procedure as the Reference Standard. n.d.

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