Controversy and debate: challenges with the need to improve the reference standard in diagnosis paper 1: two challenges: absence of a clear cut, easily replicable test for the reference standard; unethical/infeasible inclusion of an invasive procedure in the reference standard

  • Martin H. Reed
    Corresponding author. Department of Radiology, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 197 Harvard Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3M 0J9.
    Department of Radiology, Max Rady College of Medicine, University of Manitoba, 197 Harvard Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3M 0J9
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Published:December 08, 2022DOI:
      A request for GRADE, QADAS-2, and STARD to develop criteria for reference standards in accuracy studies for diagnostic imaging.
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