Study Design and Setting
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Conflict of interest statement: The authors have stated that they have no conflicts of interest.
Funding: This study was supported in part by a grant from the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS).
Ethical approval: Not applicable.
Transparency declaration: Dr. Contopoulos-Ioannidis (the manuscript's guarantor) affirms that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted; and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.