The use of Latin squares and related block designs in implementation research

      A common goal in implementation research is to compare alternative implementation strategies across a range of clinical conditions. Block designs can be used to obtain estimates of effect size while controlling for nuisance variables [
      • Bailey R.A.
      Design of comparative experiments.
      ]. A nuisance variable is correlated with the outcome of interest but not of direct interest to the researcher; it might be a characteristic of the participants or institutions under study. In general, blocks correspond to different values of the nuisance variables.
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